Scleropyrum pentandrum(Dennst.) Mabb belonging to santalaceae family is a small tree of a maximum height of 6 to 7 meters, commonly found in the evergreen forests of Peninsular India, Western Ghats, South and Central Sahyadris and on sandy soil. It is traditionally used for it’s Anti inflammatory activity. It is used for various activities by tribal people in different parts of the world (Much works on this plant is not done till). The present study explains the phytochemical and anti-inflammatory activity of the leaves of the Scleropyrum pentandrum. Further study is needed to isolate and elucidate it’s medicinally active components. Also necessary studies are needed to evaluate each compounds for it’s pharmacological activities.
PinusRoxiburghii (family: Pineceae) also known as Chir-Pine. The present work aims at evaluating the anti inflammatory activity of PinusRoxiburghii by HRBC membrane stabilization.The prevention of hypotonicity induced HRBC membrane lysis was taken as a measure of the anti inflammatory activity. The anti inflammatory activity of the hydroalcohalic extract, Hexane extract, Chloroform, ether extract and Mixture extract of leaves part of Pinusroxiburghii were compared to that of the standard drug Diclofenac. The percentage protection of lysis for Standard Diclofenac 50 µg is 67.27%, Standard Diclofenac 100 µg is 61.64%, hydroalcohalic extract 100µg is 68.55%, hydroalcohalic extract 200µg is 65.64%, hexane extract 100µg is 75.46%, Hexane extract 200µg is 78.37%, chloroform extract 100 µg is 78.73% and chloroform extract 200µg is 81.46%. The hydroalcohalic extract of PinusRoxiburgii significant anti inflammatory activity in comparison to chloroform extract and hexane extract of the same plant and with standard drug Diclofenac.
The objective of this study was to investigate the anxiolytic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Ficus pumila L. (Moraceae) in experimental animals. Two doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) of the extracts were used for the study. The experiments was performed by using three models such as elevated plus maze (EPM), open field test and Y maz model. Diazepam 2mg was used as the standard drug. All drugs were administered by the oral route.The result showed that administration of the extract of Ficus pumila L. to the animals significantly increases the both number and time spended in open arms in the elveted plus maze test. In open field the animals showed an increase in the ambulation, total locomotion, central locomotion and decrease in latency, rearing and time taken to enter central compartment. The results obtained in the Y-maze model showed that the numbers of visits of mice in the three arms were found to be decreased significantly in a dose dependent manner for all extract treated groups when compared to the control animals. Phyto-chemical analysis revealed the presence of carbohydrate, glycosides, sterols, flavonoids and triterpenes. From the results obtained it could be concluded that the ethanolic extract of leaves of Ficus pumila L.possess significant, dose dependent anxiolytic activity.
Muhammed Ashraf. V.K*, G. Thamotharan, S. Sengottuvelu.
<p style="text-align: justify;" class=""Default"" justify;"=""><span>Diosmin is a flavone glycoside, having anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. The protective effect of diosmin during hepatic fibrosis remains elusive. The main cause of liver fibrosis is the activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC) mainly via oxidative damage. Activated HSCs was known to create imbalance in levels of liver marker enzymes like AST, ALT, ALP and triggers lipid peroxidation, and enzymatic antioxidants and alters the hepatic function. Due to the accumulation of extracellular matrix the levels of hydroxyproline were also measured to observe the collagen formation which is the principle marker of hepatic fibrosis. Our aim of the present study was to evaluate the modulatory effect of diosmin on above mentioned factors during experimentally DMN induced liver fibrosis. Group I rats served as control. Group II rats were induced with Dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) (10mg/kg b.w) for three consecuetive days in a week for 4 weeks by intraperitoneal injection. Group III rats exposed to DMN and treated with diosmin (20mg/kg b.w) intragastrically. Group IV rats were administered with diosmin alone for 4 weeks which serve as a drug control. In the present study it was observed that treatment with diosmin significantly (p <0.005) attenuates the levels of LPO, SOD, CAT, GSH, GPx, GR and repair the hepatocytes thereby reduce the serum markers ALT, AST & ALP which were observed to be significantly higher in DMN induced rats. Further treatment with diosmin attenuated collagen accumulation, as demonstrated via hydroxyproline content and restored the histological alterations. Findings from the present study show that diosmin alleviates DMN-induced liver fibrosis in rats.</span><br></p><p></p>
An isocratic RP-HPLC method was developed and validated for the quantitation of Clopidogrel bisulphate in tablet dosage form. Quantification was achieved by using a reversed-phase C18 column (Inertsil ODS 3V, 5µ, 250 mm × 4.6 mm) at ambient temperature with mobile phase consisting of Acetonitrile: 0.1% Trifluro acetic acid aqueous solution (70: 30, v/v)). The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min. Measurements were made at a wavelength of 220 nm. The average retention time for Clopidogrel bisulphate was found to be 2.95 min. The proposed method was validated for selectivity, precision, linearity and accuracy. The assay method was found to be linear from 60-140 µg/ml for Clopidogrel bisulphate. All validation parameters were within the acceptable range. The developed method was successfully applied to estimate the amount of Clopidogrel bisulphate in tablet dosage form.
Kiran mayee. K*, Thirupathi Rathna, Rajashekhar Prahlad, Shashikanth. T.
Bilayer tablet is new era for the successful development of controlled release formulation along with various features to provide a way of successful drug delivery system. Bi-layer tablet is suitable for sequential release of two drugs in combination, separate two incompatible substances and also for sustained release tablet in which one layer is immediate release as initial dose and second layer is maintenance dose. Novel technologies with improved performance, patient compliance and enhanced quality have emerged in the recent past. Multilayer tableting is getting increasing attention for a variety of reasons like patent extension, therapeutic effect, marketing to name. To reduce capital investment, quite often existing but modified tablet presses are used to develop and produce such tablets. While general tablet manufacturing principles remain the same, there is much more to consider because making multi-layer tablets involves multiple-often incompatible products, additional equipment and many formulation and operation challenges. The present article provides a review on types of tablets, and challenges in bilayer tablet manufacturing, quality and GMP requirements for their production and recent developments in the field of bilayer technology.
Rayaprolu Mounica*,Junju Mohan Kumar, Voleti Vijaya Kumar, Sai Padmini Bolla, M. Pavani.
Microemulsions are excellent candidates as potential drug delivery systems because of their improved drug solubilization, long shelf life, and ease of preparation and administration.Self micro emulsifying drug delivery systems are isotropic mixtures of oil, surfactant, co-surfactant and drug with a unique ability to form fine oil in water microemulsion upon mild agitation following dilution with aqueous phase. The hypothesis behind dissolution rate enhancement with SMEDDS is the spontaneous formation of the emulsion in the gastrointestinal tract which presents the drug in solubilized form, and the small size of the formed droplet provides a large interfacial surface area for drug absorption. SMEDDS is evaluated by various methods like visual assessment, droplet polarity and droplet size, size of emulsion droplet, dissolution test, charge of oil droplets, viscosity determination, in vitro diffusion study. With future development of this technology, SMEDDS will continue to enable novel applications in drug delivery and solve problems associated with the delivery of poorly soluble drugs.
P. Uma Maheswara Reddy*, P. Ramesh Babu, Malleswara Rao. P, Edukondalu. V, K.L.N. Mallikharjunarao.
Native starch granules are insoluble at room temperature, highly resistant to enzymatic hydrolysis and lack specific functional properties. Native starches were well explored as binder and disintegrant in solid dosage form. Native starch irrespective of their source are undesirable for many applications, because of their inability to withstand processing conditions such as extreme temperature, diverse pH, high shear rate, and freeze thaw variation. To overcome this, modifications are usually done to enhance or repress the inherent property of these native starches or to impact new properties to meet the requirements for specific applications. The modifications alter the properties of starch,including solution viscosity, association behavior, and shelf life stability in final products. Modified starches were established as multifunctional excipient in the pharmaceutical and food industry. Common modes of modifications useful in pharmaceuticals are chemical, physicaland enzymatic with, a much development already seen in chemical modification.This review aims to summarize the latest developments and recent knowledge regarding chemically modified starches. Recently new research works are done to modify starches such as corn (normal and waxy), wheat, potato and tapioca, sago, icacina starch etc were found to act as a multifuctional excipient like disintegrant, super disintegrant, polymer for controlled release, carrier for solid dispersion.
Subhashis Debnath, V.G. Gayathri*, M. Niranjan Babu.
Amlodipine besylate is a commonly used antihypertensive drug acting as calcium antagonist. In this study, a colored ion-pair complex formation reaction among Amlodipine and acid-dye bromothymolblue blue at pH 6.0 was used for the colorimetric determination of the drug. The complex formed was extracted into chloroform and the maximum absorbance of the solution was measured at 414 nm against blank. The calibration curve calculated obeys Beer's law over the concentration range of 1-3μg/ml and the regression equation was A=0.299x+0.010 (r=0.998). The recovery of the drug from a commercial tablet was 104.6 % of the label claim with a relative standard deviation of 0.21 %. The results were compared with those of the spectrophotometric method currently used by the manufacturer of the tablets and no significant difference was found.
The in vitroantioxidant activityand Preliminary Phytochemical investigation was carried out on hydroalcoholic extract Gynocardia odorata roxbleaves. It indicates the presence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, flavonoids, phytosterols, phenols, tannins and lignins. The antioxidant activity was determined by in-vitro methods such as2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay and Estimation of Total Phenol and Flavonol Contents. The highest radical scavenging was observed in the hydroalcoholic extract Gynocardia odorata roxbleaveswith IC50 = 28.38 ± 1.02mg. The greater amount of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and flavonol content leads to more potent radical scavenging effect as shown by the hydroalcoholic extract Gynocardia odorata roxbleaves. The evaluation of total antioxidant capacity and IC50value of hydroalcoholic extract Gynocardia odorata roxb leavesfor DPPH activity showed significant antioxidant activity. The results of this research work are promising thus indicating the utilisation of the leaves of Gynocardia odorata roxb as a significant source of natural antioxidants.
Jagan Mohan. C*, L. Deepa, U. Ubaidulla, N. Ganesh.