The contamination of heavy metals to the environment, i.e., soil, water, plant and air is of great concern due to its potential impact on human and animal health. Hence, this investigation was designed to study the levels of heavy metals contamination in effluents from automobile industry situated at Guduvancheri. An attempt was also made to study the levels of heavy metals absorbed after phyoremediating the industrial effluent with plant materials such as leaf, seed bark of Phyllanthus emblica. The leaf sample of investigated plant was found to absorb heavy metals such as lead and zinc very effectively. The bark sample of investigated plant was found to absorb heavy metals such as lead and zinc was as same as in the leaf sample. This study has demonstrated that the plant materials of Phyllanthus emblica can be used as effective bioabsorbent for removal of lead and zinc from aqueous solutions.
The existence of Candida albicans in the human body is entirely compatible with a life time of excellent health. They produce a broad range of infections, ranging from non-life threatening mucocutaneous illnesses to invasive process that may involve virtually any organ. Such a broad range of infections requires an equally broad range of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Oral thrush in neonates is conventionally described as moniliasis or candidiasis. Drugssuch as broad spectrum antibiotics alter the local oral flora creating a suitable environment for candida to proliferate. The normal oral flora is restored once the antibiotics are discontinued. For infants, mild antifungal mediation should be given. For adults with weakened immune system - antifungals like flucanazole, clotrimazole, nystatin etc is recommended. For easophagal canidiasis itrcanazole, ketocanazole should be given. The only prevention is Good Oral Hygiene. From this review we can come into a conclusion that, need for new therapy is needed because resistance to the currently available drugs has been reported.
S. Sreekanth*, Kaithavalappil, V. Ganesan, M. Kannappan, Deepa. T. Vasudevan.
In present study domperidone tablets were formulated by using natural superdisintegrant lipidium sativum seed powder and synthetic cross povidone with 10% concentration were prepared namely F-1 to F-5 formulation and these are characterized by hardness, thickness, weight variation, friability, wettability time and dissolution studies.Fast dissolving tablets can be prepared by direct compression method using natural and synthetic superdisintegrant.The values obtained from the evaluation studies indicate that all the parameters within the standard limits. In vitro disintegration studies showed that fast dissolving tablets from F-4(10% conc) showed the best disintegration time with in 23sec. In vitro dissolution studies showed that the formulation F-4 gave the maximum percentage drug release (100%) with in 6min. Hence as the concentration of the superdisintegrant increases drug release increases F-4 profile of lepidium sativum seed powder is almost equal to that of the synthetic superdisintegrant.
M. Jhansi rani*, A. Surendra, A.M.S. Sudhakar babu, A. Nagoor.
The Present manuscript describe simple, sensitive, rapid, accurate, precise and economical first derivative spectrophotometric method for the simultaneous determination of Rosuvastatin Calcium and Fenofibrate in combined Pharmaceutical dosage form. The derivative Spectrophotometric method was based on the determination of both the drugs at their respective Zero Crossing Point (ZCP). The First order derivative spectra was obtained in Methanol and the determinations were made at 243nm (ZCP of Rosuvastatin Calcium) for Fenofibrate and 239nm (ZCP of Fenofibrate) for Rosuvastatin Calcium. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 2-10 μg/ml for Rosuvastatin Calcium and 3-15 μg/ml for Fenofibrate. The results of analysis have been validated statistically and recovery studies confirmed the accuracy of the proposed method. The method was found to be Simple, Sensitive, Accurate and Precise as per ICH guideline Q2B (R1). The Proposed method was successfully applied for the simultaneous estimation of both the drugs in commercial Pharmaceutical dosage form.
The hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect of ethyl ether and ethanolic fractions from leaves of Gossypium herbaceum (200mg/kg) (EEFGH and EFGH) was evaluated by dexamethasone-induced diabetic rats. Animals were induced for diabetes with dexamethasone (10 mg/kg of body weight- s.c.) and treated orally with different fraction of Gossypium herbaceum. Glibenclamide used as standard drug. The fractions showed significant (p<0.01) anti-hyperglycemic and hypolipidemic activity as compared to diabetic control. The fractions show beneficial effects on blood glucose like as standard. It also reduces the elevated biochemical parameters such as triglycerides (TGL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and total cholesterol (TC), increased the reduced level of high density lipoprotein (HDL) and maintains body weight. Thus both fractions could serve as good oral hypoglycemic agents and seems to be promising for the development of phytomedicines for diabetes mellitus.
C. Velmurugan*, Anurag Bhargava, T.S. Kishore Kumar, Saurab Sharma.
The objective of the present study was to prepare the Fast Disintegration Tablets of Aceclofenac, which is a used for treatment of non steroidal anti inflammatory. Aceclofenac is poorly soluble and its absorption is dissolution rate limited. Dispersions prepared by melting method show better dissolution profile than dispersions prepared by melt solvent method and physical mixture. This may be due to grinding; there is a uniform distribution of drug in the polymer crust at molecular level in a highly dispersed state. Thus, when such system comes in contact with an aqueous dissolution medium, the hydrophilic carrier dissolves and results in precipitation of the embedded drug into fine particles, which increases the dissolution surface available. There is an enhancement of dissolution of Aceclofenac on increasing the concentration of Mannitol. The tablets was prepared by direct compression method and evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time and uniformity of content. Optimized formulations were evaluated for in vitro dissolution test. Amongst all formulations, formulation F4 prepared by drug: Mannitol (1:4) which is prepared by melt method with croscarmellose sodium showed least dispersion time and faster dissolution. These results indicate that the selected formulation was stable during the period of accelerated stability studies.
K. Sunil Kumar*, SK. Saud, S. Jeganath, G. H. Srinivasa Rao.
Plants have been used in the treatment of diabetes, anemia, inflammation of spleen, dyspepsia, diarrhea, hypotensive and used as carminative, laxative, diuretic, and astringent. Antiulcer activity of hydroalcoholic extract (200 mg/kg) of Diospyros melanoxylon (HDM) leaves was evaluated against positive control (forced swim stress), Famotidine 20 mg/kg body weight was used as reference standard in antiulcer testing. Acute and short term toxicity studies were performed initially in order to ascertain the safety of HDM. Treatment with HEDM leaves possesses significant anti-ulcer activity in forced swim stress induced gastric ulcer model. It has gastric antis-secretory and acid neutralizing effects that are comparable to reference drug Famotidine. Diospyros melanoxylon exhibited significant antiulcer activity.
G. Sudhakara Rao*, G. Kiran, K. Suresh Kumar, M. Anusha, A. Priyanka.
The ethanolic extract of flowers of Ixora pavetta was screened for in vitro antioxidant activity by DPPH, Hydrogen peroxide and Nitric oxide methods. Ascorbic acid was used as reference standard. The extract showed significant antioxidant activity with all the selected methods as compared to standard ascorbic acid.
Ten novel 2-oxo-N1-[(E)-quinolin-3-ylmethylidene]-2H-chromene-3-carbo hydrazoneswere synthesized by the reaction of substituted the 2-oxo-2H-chromene-3-carbohydrazide in N,N-dimethyl form amide various 2-Chloro,2-hydr oxy,2-thione-3-formyl quinolines and tetrazolo[1,5-a]quinoline-4-carbaldehyde in presence of catalytic amount of glacial aceticacid. Newly synthesized compounds were characterized by spectroscopic and physical methods. All the synthesized com pounds were screened for antifungal activities by standard method. Results of the activities reveal that, some compounds exhibited moderate to good antifungal activities.
B.H.M. Jayakumar Swamy*, H.G.M. Nandini, N. Pramod.
Drugs are most often administered by the oral route. However, more than 40% of new chemical entities exhibit poor aqueous solubility, resulting in unsatisfactory oral drug delivery. Recently, much attention has been focused on selfemulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) to improve the oral bioavailability of poorly aqueous soluble drugs. SEDDS are isotropic mixtures of oil, surfactants, solvents and co-solvents/surfactants. The principal characteristic of these systems is their ability to form fine oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions or microemulsions upon mild agitation following dilution by an aqueous phase. For lipophilic drugs, which display dissolution rate-limited absorption, SEDDS may be a promising strategy to improve the rate and extent of oral absorption. This article gives an over view of formulation, development, characterization, recent approaches and applications of self emulsifying drug delivery systems.
P. Ramaa Bharathi*, D. Jasinth,CH. Chandana Priyanka, B. Satya Lakshmi, B. Madhavi, T. Swathi.