Nanotech materials can be easier to target for specific cells such as those in cancerous tumors. They can be shaped into containers - miniscule pockets to contain drugs, especially those for cancer that are toxic to healthy tissues and need to be encapsulated until they reach the target. The present research study is related with sustained release of an antiulcer drug i.e., proton pump inhibitor. The drug is acid labile and hence it is entrapped with ethyl cellulose for its sustained release. As the drug made into nanoparticle the density was found to be increased. Nanosponge is water soluble. This does not mean the molecules chemically break up in water, but it means that nanosponge particles can mix with water and use it as transport fluid, for example to be injected. So in theory nanosponge has several advantages over other delivery methods. Like all nanomedical materials nanosponge will need lengthy phased trials, which means that commercial availability is still years away. In the present study the formulated nanosponge loaded with ciprofloxacin antibiotic used resulted in sustained release. Among all the formulated batches starting from F1 through F5 the final batch (F5) is considered as the best entrapped (90.80%) nanosponge with greater percentage drug release (99.4%). The characterization by SEM finally concluded the appearance as a “Nanosponge”.
The present work was carried out to formulate and evaluate bilayer tablets, Sustained release of Metformin HCl and immediate release of Atorvastatin Calcium used for adjunctive therapy to diet and exercise in patients with diabetic dyslipidemia. Drug exicipient compatibility studies were conducted and show satisfactory results. The formulation were prepared as bilayer tablets using Hypromellose and sodium CMC by wet granulation process containing sustained release of Metformin HCl and immediate release layer of Atorvastatin Calcium. Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (sugar). It happens when the body has too little or not enough insulin or when the body can‘t use insulin properly. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method. Granules were evaluated for pre compression parameters and the tablets were evaluated for post compression parameters. Optimized formulations were evaluated for in vitro dissolution test. Stability studies were conducted for F9-F11.
P. Malleswara rao*, K. Navya sri, N.S.V. Teja Rameswarapu, K.L.N. Mallikharjunarao, G. Mohana ranga reddy, M. Aswini.
The new generation of Fast dissolving drug delivery system (FDDS) technologies brings valuable benefits to patients, life cycles and profits. Over recent years advancement in Fast dissolving drug delivery is widely expected to change the landscape of pharmaceutical industries for the foreseeable future. Fast dissolving drug delivery have become a significant priority worldwide. It may be possible to achieve rapid absorption of drugs and increased bioavailability, reduced toxicity, rapid onset of theuraptic action, improved delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs and also it is regarded as the most economical and safest method of drug delivery. This article includes requirement for fast dissolving drug delivery system, their advantages, disadvantages, formulation, various technologies, evaluation method, various marketed products and applications.
S. Jeganath*,Y. Venkata kiran kumar, G. H. Srinivasa Rao, D. Thirupathaiah, V. Lakshmi Narayana.
Medicinal plants are the wealthy source of antibacterial agents and curatives. Vitex negundo Linn are commonly practiced medicinal plants in the villages of Tamilnadu (India). Plants grown in this region are not systematically tested for their biological activities in general and antimicrobial activity in particular. Hence, In vitro antibacterial activity of crude leaf extracts of these shrub was tested by disc diffusion method against 9 human pathogenic bacteria E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus vulgaris Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Klebsiella Pneumoniae Salmonella typhi, Enterobacter aerogenes. Gram-negative bacterial strains were more susceptible to the crude extracts as compare to gram-positive. However, this study revealed maximum growth inhibition and effectiveness was remarkably observed in the extracts of Vitex negundo Linn. These results indicate that leaves have a potential broad spectrum antibacterial activity.
A isocratic RP- HPLC method was developed for the determination of Bisoprolol fumarate in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The chromatographic separation was carried out on prontosil, chromo bond, C18, (250X4.6) mm, 5µ column and buffer (pH 5.6) and acetonitrile were mixed in the ratio of 750:250 was used as mobile phase at the flow rate of 1ml/min with PDA detection at 226nm. The retention time of Bisoprolol fumarate was found to be 9.15min. The developed HPLC method was validated by determining its sensitivity, selectivity, linearity, accuracy and precision, ruggededness and robustness. The assay method was found to be linear from 25 to 100 µg/ml. The accuracy of the method was assessed by percentage recovery studies at six different levels at 50%, 80%, 100%, 150%, 200% and 300% of its working concentration. The percentage recovery of the drug in the developed method was found to be in the ranges of from 97 to 103% that indicates the good accuracy of the method. This developed method can be used for the routine analysis for the estimation of Bisoprolol fumarate in bulk and Pharmaceutical formulations.
Kishore Konam*, J. Soujanya, M. Sasikala, A. Kiran kumar.
The traditional medicine involves the use of different plant extracts or the bioactive constituents. The study such as ethno medicine keenly represents one of the best avenues in searching new economic plants for medicine. This type of study provides the health application at affordable cost. The present study carried out to find out the phytochemical constituents in the Ficusracemosa leaves. The materials were grained and extracted with benzene, ethanol, ethyl acetate, and methanol and petroleum ether. Photochemical analysis was carried out according to standard procedures. Sugar, protein, alkaloids, flavonoids, sterols and glycoside were found to be present in the extracts.
CH. Ananda kumar*, T. Kiran kumar, N. Gyana jyothi reddy.
Ground water is the major source of drinking water in both urban and rural parts of India. Clean water is absolutely essential for healthy living and is a precious gift of nature. Water is being polluted with increased population, agricultural needs and industrial purpose. The polluted water on drinking may cause serious effect in human beings, domestic animals and even in the case of aquatic organisms. The physicochemical parameters of water samples from Pathanamthitta district were assessed. Water samples were collected from open well and bore well. The ground water is analyzed for various physicochemical parameters like colour, odour, taste, turbidity, pH, temperature, total alkalinity, total hardness, calcium, sulphate, nitrate, sodium, potassium, iron, aluminium, conductance, total dissolved solid and chloride after following the methods of American Public Health Association 1995. The results were compared with Bureau of Indian Standard and World Health Organization.
G. Kavitha*, Eldho Abraham, Lisa Sara Mathews, Nimisha Susan Mathew, Deepa. T Vasudevan.
The present study involves the isolation and identification of bacitracin producing Bacillus species from different milk samples. The genus Bacillus produces mainly polypeptide antibiotics such as bacitracin and polymyxin. Bacitracin is a constituent in Neosporin ointment for controlling skin infections. It was isolated by spread plate technique. It was inoculated into the fermentation medium. All were screened for the production of antibiotic by agar diffusion assay against Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial activity was measured in terms of zone of inhibition (mm). The Bacillus isolate B8 showing maximum zone of inhibition. Since bacitracin is effective against gram positive organism, the obtained antibiotic was identified as bacitracin by cup plate method using E.coli as test organism. The high rate of resistance of isolated Bacillus species against bacitracin, confirmed it as bacitracin producer.
Overactive bladder (OAB) is a prevalent condition which has an adverse effect on quality of life. The presence of urgency incontinence confers significant morbidity above and beyond that of OAB sufferers who are continent. The primary treatment for OAB and urgency incontinence is a combination of behavioral measures and antimuscarinic drug therapy. The ideal antimuscarinic agent should effectively relieve the symptoms of OAB, with the minimum of side effects; it should be available as a once-daily sustained release formulation and in dosage strength that allows easy dose titration for the majority of sufferers. Solifenacin succinate was launched in 2005 and has been shown in both short and long term clinical trials to fulfill these requirements. Solifenacin is a competitive M3 receptor antagonist with a long half-life (45-68 hours). It is available in two dosage strengths namely a 5 or 10 mg once-daily tablet. The efficacy and tolerability of solifenacin for the treatment of all symptoms of OAB has been evaluated in a number of large, placebo controlled, randomized trials. Long-term safety, efficacy, tolerability and persistence with treatment have been established in an open label 40 week continuation study.
CH. Ananda kumar*, T. Kiran kumar, N. Gyana jyothi reddy.
The galls of Quercus infectoria Olivier’s was used in the treatment of skin infections. Use of plant based drugs and chemicals for curing various ailments and personal adornment is as old as human civilization. The aim of the study was to find out the bioactive chemical constituents and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of the aqueous, ethanolic and petroleum ether extracts of traditionally used medicinal plant, the galls of Quercus infectoria. A qualitative phytochemical analysis indicates the presence of alkaloids, glycosides, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, tannins and proteins and amino acids. The result of antimicrobial susceptibility assay showed promising evidence for the antimicrobial effects of Gall of Quercus infectoria. Ethanolic extract of Gall of Quercus infectoria showed maximum inhibition and the MIC values of ethanol extracts against Staphylococus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans were, respectively, 0.0391,0.0781,0.0391 and 0.0195 mg/mL. Whereas the MIC values of the extract (0.0391 mg/mL) against both the organisms Staphylococus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were the same. On the other hand, the MBC values of ethanol extract against Staphylococus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, were, respectively, 0.0195, 0.0391 and 0.0195 mg/mL. Whereas the MFC value of ethanol extract against Candida albicans was much lower, that is 0.0098 mg/mL. This scientific studies has revealed its potential to provide an alternative for modern medicinal products as well as cosmetics and skin care products.
S. K. Sreekanth*, V. Ganesan, M. Kannappan, Deepa.T.Vasudevan.