The objective of the present study was to prepare the Fast Disintegration Tablets of Sumatriptan succinate, an anti-migrane drug. As precision of dosing and patient compliance become an important prerequisite for a migrane treatment, there is a need to develop a formulation for this drug which overcomes problems such as difficulty in swallowing, inconvenience in administration while travelling and patient's acceptability. Hence, the present work was undertaken with a view to develop a Fast Disintegration Tablet of Sumatriptan succinate which offers a new range of product having desired characteristics and intended benefits. Various techniques like direct compression and sublimation technique were used to formulate Fast Disintegration Tablets of Sumatriptan succinate. In direct compression method and sublimation method the effect of various super disintegrants was studied, among these 4% Cross Povidone showed better drug release. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time and uniformity of content. Optimized formulations were evaluated for in vitro dissolution test. Between the two techniques sublimation technique was found to be most successful and tablets prepared by this technique (F12) had disintegration time of 30 sec and %CR 52.74±1.42 after 5 min.
M. Suvarchala*, A.M.S. Sudhakar babu, P. Venkateswararao, G. Lakshmi Devi.
The objective of the present work was to formulate Solid lipid nanoparticles of Lornoxicam. Solid lipid nanoparticles were prepared by hot homogenization technique and characterized by particle size analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, Differential Scanning Calorimetry, drug entrapment efficiency, Scanning Electron Microscopy and in vitro release studies. At highest speed the result solid lipid nanoparticles were smaller in size and their size increased with increase in lipid concentration. Smaller size solid lipid nanoparticles were obtained with 1 % (1:1 w/v) of lecithin/tween-80. Tripalmitin Solid lipid nanoparticles showed maximum entrapment efficiency, Controlled release and showed maximum release. The in vitro release was found to follow Non-Fickian Diffusion mechanism. The surface characters were found to be better with all the lipid carriers. Accelerated stability studies indicated that there were no significant changes when stored between 2-80C and 75 ± 5% RH. The formulations done with Tripalmitin showed better efficiency with controlled release profile.
CH. Sumalatha*, A.M.S. Sudhakar babu, P. Venkateswararao, V. Venumadhuri.
Herbs and its active constituents are being used to treat the infectious organisms, which no longer responsive to conventional medicine. The herbal drugs been used throughout the world have received greater attention in recent times, because of its diversity of curing diseases and well tolerated remedies compared to the conventional medicines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity and anti microbial activity of leaves extracts of Tectona grandis. The extract was subjected to phytochemical analysis and it shows the presence of Saponins, Carbohydrates, Cardiac glycosides, Steroids, Triterpenes. The percentage yield of solvent extracts method and yield from leaves of Tectona grandis of petroleum ether (6.5%), chloroform (6.9%), ethanol (14.6%) and water extracted (27.14%) and Solvent Extraction method and yield from leaves of Prosopis chilensis of petroleum ether (6.1%), chloroform (5.9%), ethanol (12.6%) and water extracted (21.11%). Conclusion that the anti-microbial activity of various extracts of leaves of Tectona grandis indicated that all extracts showed significant therapeutic activity, but in specific conclusion ethanolic extract exhibit maximum activity.
G. Pradeep*, V. Ramanarayana Reddy, G. Nagarjuna Reddy, T.V. Narayana, G. Vijayakumar, J. Ramanjaneyulu.
The aim of the study is to evaluate the antimicrobial drug use and knowledge of prescribing pattern among hospitalized patients. The primary objective of this study is to describe the prescribing practice of antibiotics in hospitalized patients. To verify some selected variables like risk factors, patient age, sex, route of administration, combination therapy are affecting the therapeutic choice. During the study period we observed that female patients are more consuming antibiotics during hospitalization. Cephalosporin antibiotics with parenteral route were mostly prescribing than other drugs. And combination therapy is not giving frequently. Culturing of the patients’ specimens and their identification was performed according to standard microbiological procedures.
Recent development in Oral disintegration tablets have brought convenience in dosing to elderly and children who have trouble in swallowing tablets. The purpose of the present research was to prepare taste masking Oral disintegrating tablets of poorly soluble Lornoxicam by direct compression technique using Kyron T-114(cation exchange resin) as a taste masking agent. With in various ratios the Drug-resin ratio of 1:3 was found to offer best taste masking. The superdisintegrants used in formulation are Crosscaramelose Sodium, Sodium Starch Glycolate and Cross Povidone. Among these Cross Povidine showed better drug release. The tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation, wetting time, disintegration time and uniformity of content. Optimized formulations were evaluated for in vitro dissolution test. Amongst all the formulations F-011 was found to be most successful tablets prepared by this technique had disintegration time of 7 sec and % CDR 93.80 within 30 min. Hence, this approach can be utilised for taste masking of bitter pharmaceutical ingredients leading to improved patient compliance.
K. Pavankumar*, A.M.S. Sudhakar babu, P. Venkateswararao.
In the present investigation, the Carvedilol tablets were formulated by employing Hydrophilic polymers such as HPMC K15, Xanthan gum and Guar gum, Sodium bicarbonate is used as a gas generating agent through wet granulation technique. Among the formulations F1 to F9 the F6 formulation (HPMC K15 and Gaur gum 1:1 ratio) was optimized to get 93% drug release and prolonged the drug release for more than 12hrs. The resulting formulations produced consistent hardness, uniformity in weight and low friability. The formulation with HPMC and Guar gum in the drug and polymer ratio has optimum floating lag time. The optimized formula F6 was fitted to various kinetic models and the result showed that F6 batch followed Zero order kinetics. The mechanism of drug release from F6 batch was Higuchi’s with non fickian diffusion pattern. These results indicate that the selected formulation was stable during the period of accelerated stability studies.
M. Sujatha*, R. Aruna, A.M.S. Sudhakar babu, P. Venkateswararao, V. Venu madhuri, M. Suvarchala.
Iontophoresis is an exciting technology that was initially investigated 250 years ago. Simply defined, it is the application of an electrical potential that maintains a constant electric current across the skin. Recently, there has been increased interest in using this technique for the transdermal delivery of medications, both ionic and non-ionic. In the past few years, different types of iontophoresis such as transdermal, ophthalmic, buccal and Ural iontophoresis have been reported. This article is an overview of the history, types and factors affecting iontophoretic drug transfer, external preparation, advantages, disadvantages, applications of iontophoresis.
A.V.S. Madhulatha*, A.V.S. Himabindu, T. Naga Ravikiran.
In the present study, a gastro retentive micro particulate system was formulated with different Polymers by using solvent evaporation technique. A series of 8 formulations was prepared based on 23 Design of experiments. The formulated microspheres were evaluated flow characteristics, Practical yield (up to 80 %) and Encapsulation efficiency (up to 94%). Scanning electron Microscopy confirmed their porous and spherical structure and the particles were of the Size range of (65-525 µm). The release of drug at 1 hour and 8 hours’ time points were taken as the measurable parameters for running the DOE experiments. According to design space Hollow Microspheres formulated with Drug in the range of 50 to 70 mg/unit, Ethyl cellulose 7 cps in the range of 145 to 150 mg/unit and HPMC 5 cps in the range of 0.4 to 2 mg/unit were observed to have the best floating characteristics and in vitro dissolution profile as per the preset target product profile. Stability studies showed no significant change in the drug content in the formulations at 3 months accelerated condition. In this study concluded that a micro particulate floating dosage form of an anti-infective drug can be successfully designed to give controlled release and improved oral bioavailability.
R.V.V. Narendra Babu*, M. Prathap, P. Venkateswara Rao, A.M.S. Sudhakar babu, CH. Ananda Kumar.
Cancer is a highly complex disease to understand because it entails multiple cellular physiological systems such as cell signaling and apoptosis. Thus, the most common cancer treatments are limited to chemotherapy, radiation, and surgery. Recent developments in nanotechnology offer researchers opportunities to significantly transform cancer therapeutics. The nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary field, which recently has emerged as one of the most promising field in cancer treatment and is definitely a medical boon for diagnosis, treatment and prevention of cancer disease. Nanotechnology is the study and use of structures between 1 nm and 100 nm in size, which have properties of self-assembly, stability, specificity, drug encapsulation and biocompatibility as a result of their material composition. Clinical investigations suggest that therapeutic nanoparticles can enhance efficacy and reduced side effects compared with conventional cancer therapeutic drugs. The use of nanoparticles exhibits unique pharmacokinetics, high surface-to-volume ratios, may be constructed from a wide range of materials used to encapsulate/solubilize therapeutic agents for drug delivery or to provide unique optical, magnetic, and electrical properties for imaging and remote actuation. Nanomedicine application areas include drug delivery, therapy, diagnostic, imaging and antimicrobial techniques. This article aims at giving an overview of the present status of nanotechnology in cancer therapy.
G. Poovi, S. Padmapriya, K. V. Durga*, M. Anita sharmav, V. Gopal.
Hyperglycemia is the technical term for high blood glucose (sugar). It happens when the body has too little or not enough insulin or when the body can‘t use insulin properly. The main objective of the present research work was to develop a bilayer tablet of immediate release Pioglitazone and controlled release Metformin Hydrochloride, which is used as an Anti-hyperglycemic agent. Metformin Hydrochloride has biological half-life nearly about 6 hours, so, an attempt was made in the direction of preparation and optimization of a combination of sustained release and immediate release in a single tablet. In controlled release layer natural gums like xanthum gum, gum tragacanth and guar gum were used as retarding materials and in immediate release layer croscarmellose sodium was used as a superdisintegrent to give the faster release of Pioglitazone. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation method and by direct compression. Granules were evaluated for precompression parameters and the tablets were evaluated for post compression parameters.
K. Madhuri*, M. Prathap, A.M.S. Sudhakar babu, P. Venkateswararao, R. Sasidhar.