An isocratic Simultaneous estimation by RP-HPLC Method were developed and validated for the quantification of Atenolol and Lercandipine in tablet dosage form. Quantification was achieved by using a reversed-phase C18 column (INERTSIL 3V ODS Column, 5µ, 250 mm × 4.6 mm) at ambient temperature with mobile phase consisting of ammonium acetate: THF: Acn(35:10:55)_pH-3. The flow rate was 1.0 ml/min. Measurements were made at a wavelength of 221nm. The average retention time for Atenolol and Lercandipine were found to be 2.55 min and 4.410. The proposed method was validated for selectivity, precision, linearity and accuracy. The assay methods were found to be linear from 60-140µg/ml for Atenolol and 12 to 28µg/ml for Lercandipine. All validation parameters were within the acceptable range. The developed methods were successfully applied to estimate the amount of Atenolol and Lercandipine in tablet dosage form.
S. Shirisha*, Chiranjeevi. G, Rajashekhar Prahalad, Thirupathi. R.
Over the past 30 years stated that the expense and complications involved in marketing new drug entities have increased, with concomitant recognition of therapeutic advantages of controlled drug delivery, greater attention has been focused on development of sustained or controlled release drug delivery systems. Bilayer tablet is new era for the successful development of controlled release formulation along with various features to provide a way of successful drug delivery system. Controlled release dosage forms have been extensively used to improve therapy with several important drugs. Use of bilayer tablet is a very different aspect for anti-inflammatory and analgesic. Bi-layer tablet is suitable for sequential release of two drugs in combination, separate two incompatible substances and also for sustained release tablet in which one Layer is immediate release as initial dose and second layer is maintenance dose. Bilayer tablet is improved beneficial technology to overcome the shortcoming of the single layered tablet. In the case of bilayered tablets drug release can be rendered almost unidirectional if the drug can be incorporated in the upper nonadhesive layer its delivery occurs into the whole oral cavity.
In addition to transporting the active drug to the site in the body where the drug is intended to exert its action, excipients play an important part in the manufacturing process. They may also be important for keeping the drug from being released too early in the assimilation process in places where it could damage tender tissue and create gastric irritation or stomach upset. In this review we discussed about all the excipients used in the pharmaceutical formulations.
Prasad. Telaprolu*, M. Venkata Anjaneyulu, Y. Nagarjuna reddy.
The buccal region of the oral cavity is an attractive target for administration of the drug of choice. Buccal delivery involves the administration of the desired drug through the buccal mucosal membrane lining of the oral cavity. Because after oral administration many drugs show first-pass metabolism, which leads to a lack significant correlation between membrane permeability, absorption, and bioavailability. Difficulties associated with parenteral delivery and poor oral bioavailability provides alternative route for delivery of such drugs. These include routes such as pulmonary, ocular, nasal, rectal, buccal, sublingual, vaginal, and transdermal. Among the varies transmucosal routes the mucosal lining of the oral cavity offers some distinct advantages.
Raghavarapu. Hemanth Kumar*, J. N. Suresh Kumar, Sravan Kumar Pudota.
Most of the orally administered drugs, targeting is not a primary concern and it is usually intended for drugs to penetrate to the general circulation and perfuse to other body tissues. For this reason, most systems employed are of the sustained release variety. It is assumed that increasing concentration at the absorption site will increase circulating blood levels, which in turn, promotes greater concentration of drug at the site of action. If toxicity is not an issue, therapeutic levels can thus be extended. In essence, drug delivery by these systems usually depends on release from some type of dosage form, permeation through biological milieu and absorption through an epithelial membrane to the blood. In this review we discussed about the sustained drug delivery system.
Sivaramu Kambampati*, J. N. Suresh Kumar, CH. Sriram.
Tablet is the most popular among all dosage forms existing today because of its convenience of self-administration, compactness and easy manufacturing; however in many cases immediate onset of action is required than conventional therapy. To overcome these drawbacks, immediate release pharmaceutical dosage form has emerged as alternative oral dosage forms. There are novel types of dosage forms that act very quickly after administration. The basic approach used in development tablets is the use of superdisintegrants like Cross linked carboxymelhylcellulose (Croscarmeliose), Sodium starch glycolate (Primogel, Explotab), Polyvinylpyrrolidone (Polyplasdone) etc. which provide instantaneous disintegration of tablet after administration. Immediate release liquid dosage forms and parenteral dosage form have also been introduced for treating patients. Dosage form can be suspensions with typical dispersion agents like hydroxypropylmethylcellulose, (dioctylsulfosuccinate) etc. The development of immediate release therapy also provides an opportunity for a line extension in the marketplace, A wide range of drugs (e.g., neuroleptics, cardiovascular drugs, analgesics, antihistamines, and drugs can be considered candidates for this dosage form. As a drug entity nears the end of its patent life, it is common for pharmaceutical manufacturers to develop a given drug entity in a new and improved dosage form.
Asief Shaik*, R. Aruna, A.M.S. Sudhakar Babu, P. Venkateswara Rao.
An ideal dosage regimen in the drug therapy of any disease is the one which immediately attains the desired therapeutic concentration of drug in plasma (or at the site of action) and maintains it constant for the entire duration of treatment. This is possible through administration of a drug delivery system in a particular dose and at a particular frequency. Controlled drug delivery is the most advanced type of technique used for the optimized release of drug. This review consist all the information oral drug delivery.
Chejeti Anusha*, J. N. Suresh Kumar, Meraj Sultana. Syed, Vijay Shekar Reddy. Chejeti.
Intellectual property rights (IPR) have been defined as ideas, inventions, and creative expressions based on which there is a public willingness to bestow the status of property. IPR provide certain exclusive rights to the inventors or creators of that property, in order to enable them to reap commercial benefits from their creative efforts or reputation. There are several types of intellectual property protection like patent, copyright, trademark, etc. Patent is recognition for an invention, which satisfies the criteria of global novelty, non-obviousness, and industrial application. IPRs are generally understood to have two principal areas of impact in pharmaceuticals. First, there is the issue of pricing and access, where discussion focuses on the links between IPRs (particularly patent rights), exclusion of competitors and the availability and pricing of new medicines. Second, there is the issue of R & D incentives – that is to say, the role of IPRs in providing incentives to discover, develop and market new drugs – and the effect of IPRs on R & D expenditure and its allocation across diseases, countries and organizations. In this article we are providing the information about IPR.
Vankayala Phanindra*, V. Shirisha, Piduguralla Surendra.
Over the last 30 years the pharmaceutical market has been demonstrated increasing preferably for controlled and targeted drug delivery system. Such systems have been focused on constant variable sustain drug release and/or targeting the therapeutic agent to a specific site/tissue/ organ. However, recently there are certain conditions for which such release pattern is not suitable. Such conditions that lead to the requirements of a time programmed therapeutic system, which capable of releasing drug after predetermined time delay and maintain constant drug levels throughout the day. This article includes the development of pulsatile drug delivery system and about the body biological rhythms.
Piduguralla Surendra*, V. Shirisha, Vankayala Phanidra, G. Ramya Keerthi.
Targeted drug delivery system is different from conventional dosage in terms of its site specific treatment. This targeting can be used in the treatment of cancer like diseases. We can also target body part like liver, kidneys etc. Where the treatment is somewhat difficult through conventional treatment. This targeting can be achieved by using drug carrier particle like liposomes, Niosomes, microspheres and Nanoparticles etc. In this review, some basic concepts of this system has been discussed, also a brief of the type of drug carrier used in formulating such a dosage form is mentioned.
Sravan Kumar. Pudota*, V. Shirisha, Raghavarapu Hemanth Kumar.